September 15, 2009
By Mary Ann Jolley
Sit for any time in the foyer of the Hilton Hotel in Ethiopia's
capital, Addis Ababa, and you'll see a procession of Americans and
Europeans wandering from their rooms across the marble floor to the
restaurant or swimming pool with their precious new possessions -
babies or infants they've just adopted.
I'd never really thought a great deal about international adoption
until I was confronted with the scene as I checked into the hotel in
September last year.
I'd arrived to film a story for ABC TV's Foreign Correspondent program
about the drought-induced famine.
The longer I stayed, the more I started to think about the adopted
children - where they were from and how they must feel to suddenly
find themselves alone with someone whose skin colour doesn't match
theirs and whose language they don't speak.
They're dressed in alien attire - a brand new Red Sox baseball cap and
T-shirt with some cute and cheery foreign slogan plastered across the
front - and in an environment like none they've ever seen, when just
out on the street is the one they know so well, where their extended
family and fellow countrymen reside.
There was something incredibly disturbing about seeing international
adoption en masse. All these children about to leave their country to
begin a new life in a faraway place, disconnected from their heritage
Out on the street where poverty and hardship prevail, my attitude
softened. While I was filming at the produce market in Addis Ababa a
little urchin appeared beside me.
She had short hair and was wearing a torn, faded dress with sash tales
hanging loosely from the waist at both sides, and shoes with no laces.
Her toes exposed where the leather had worn through. She would have
been about nine or 10, but she was already working; her job was to
sweep up the rubbish in the markets.
"Miss," she said, "Americana?"
"No." I nodded with a smile as I rushed off to catch up with the crew.
"Where are you from?" She was at my side again.
"Australia," I replied, thinking in my ignorance that her next
question would be, "Where's Australia?" But, no, she knew it was the
land of the kangaroos and wanted to know if I could take her back so
she could go to school.
"I would love to," I said, impressed by her request. "But
unfortunately I can't." I was hoping, I must admit, that would be
enough to send her and her friends back to work, but she persisted.
"Do you have any pens for me?"
"Sorry, I don't," I replied, quite surprised she was asking for pens
and not, as is usually the case, money.
"What about paper? Do you have any paper for me for school?"
I didn't have anything on me because I'd been told to leave my bag in
the car to avoid pickpockets. I felt terrible that I couldn't help
Here was this child desperate to write and learn, but instead of being
at school she was dragging rotten fruit and vegetables from the mud
and slush between the stalls.
What obvious potential she had. Imagine what she could achieve if I
could take her back to school in Australia. Perhaps adoption is the
answer, I thought to myself.
But that was an emotional reaction. It would be almost a year before I
would have the chance to dwell seriously on the subject. In July I was
on a plane heading back.
Ethiopia is not a signatory to the Hague Convention, which requires
international adoptions be used only as a last resort after all
domestic adoption options have been exhausted.
There is overwhelming evidence to prove it is far better for a child
to remain with its family or, if that's not possible, with another
family in his or her own country than to be shipped off overseas. But
in Ethiopia today it seems it's not about what's best for the child,
but rather meeting the demand of foreigners wanting a child.
There are more than 70 private international adoption agencies
operating in Ethiopia. None of them are Australian. In Australia,
international adoptions are a Government affair and strict regulations
help to keep the process transparent. Almost half the agencies in
Ethiopia are unregistered, some doing whatever they can to find
children to satisfy the foreign market.
While there are more than 5 million legitimate orphans in Ethiopia, a
large proportion of these will never be considered for international
Foreigners prefer younger children - babies to five-year-olds. Older
children or those with health problems are more difficult to pitch. So
while many children languish in underfunded and overcrowded
orphanages, some international adoption agencies are out spruiking in
villages asking families to relinquish their children for adoption.
It's a phenomenon known as "harvesting" and it's shocking to see.
A DVD sent to families wanting to adopt by an American adoption
agency, Christian World Adoption, shows one of the agency's workers in
full flight surrounded by families and children in a remote community
in the south of the country, where the vast majority are evangelical
"If you want your child to go to a Christian American family, you may
stay. If you don't want your child to go to America, you should take
your child away," she says.
The DVD goes on for some hours with the woman introducing each child
offered for adoption one at a time. They sit on a bench in between her
and their parents or guardians.
"Here are two brothers, but only one is available at the moment," she
says for one family. For the next she tells how "it's very hard for a
widow to care for her children in this culture".
"Oh no, you mustn't pick your nose," she says to a child. She then
points out a rash on another's face and reassures the viewer it isn't
permanent and that it can be healed with treatment. All children are
asked to sing the alphabet song made famous on Sesame Street. It reeks
of a new colonialism. It's hard to believe it's happening in the 21st
Parents are often unaware of what they're doing when they offer their
children for adoption. They're led to believe they'll hear from their
children regularly and their children will be well educated and
eventually bring the family wealth.
But in reality, the parents and families never hear from their
children and receive little information about where their children
have gone. We filmed a room full of grieving mothers who gave their
children for adoption after agencies promised they'd be given regular
Some were even told the agency would help support their remaining
children. Their stories are gut-wrenching.
No one disputes there is a real need for international adoptions, but
for the sake of the children and adoptive parents there needs to be
some protection from unscrupulous agencies who purport to be driven by
humanitarian interests, but in reality are stuffing their pockets with